Next Generation Science Standards by Topic

  Forces and Interactions  

Kindergarten

What happens if you push or pull an object harder?
  • Pushes and pulls have different strengths and directions
  • Pushes and pulls start, stop, change speed or direction of an object*

Grade 3

How do equal and unequal forces on an object affect the object?
How can magnets be used?
  • Objects have multiple forces acting on them (including gravity)
  • Objects in contact exert forces on each other
  • Balanced (no change) and unbalanced (change)
  • Forces have strength and direction
  • Patterns of objects in motion can be observed, measured and if regular used to predict
  • Electric and magnetic forces between a pair of objects that do not touch*

  Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems  

Kindergarten

Where do animals live and why do they live there?
  • Animals need food, plants need water and light to live and grow
  • Living things need water, air, and resources from their environment
  • Plants and animals can change their environment

Grade 2

What do plants need to grow?
How many types of living things live in a place?
  • Plants need water and light to grow and animals to pollinate or move their seeds*
  • Match animals and plants to particular habitats

Grade 3

How are plants, animals, and environments of the past similar or different from current plants, animals, and environments?
What happens to organisms when their environment changes?
  • Habitat changes: effects on plants and animals including none, adaptations, migration and death*
  • Animal societies: sizes and benefits
  • Fossils: timeline of plants, animals and habitats

  Matter & Energy in Organisms & Ecosystems  

Grade 5

Where does the energy in food come from and what is it used for?
How does matter cycle through ecosystems?
  • Photosynthesis: the energy in food started as energy from the sun
  • Food provides material for growth & repair and energy for motion and to maintain warmth in animals
  • Food web in balanced and unbalanced ecosystems
  • Cycle of matter in ecosystems

  Earth's Systems  

Grade 2

How does land change and what are some things that cause it to change?
What are the different kinds of land and bodies of water?
  • Wind and water can change the shape of the land*
  • Changes can be quick or take so long they cannot be observed
  • Maps can show water and land formations
  • Water is found in different bodies of water and in different states

Grade 4

How can water, ice, wind and vegetation change the land?
What patterns of Earth's features can be determined with the use of maps?
  • Natural hazards: patterns, locations and effects and how people deal with them (earth quakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, etc.)*
  • Rock formations/layers show history of earth's forces; fossils date the timeline
  • Effects of water, wind, ice, living organisms and gravity on the Earth

Grade 5

How much and what kind of water can be found in different places on Earth?
  • Earth's systems: define all, explore interactions between sets of two systems at a time (geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere)
  • Location, amount, type and form of all Earth's water
  • How people protect Earth's resources and environments

  Space Systems  

Grade 1

What objects are in the sky and how do they seem to move?
  • Patterns of the sun, moon and stars movement in the sky can be observed, described and predicted
  • Seasonal patterns of sunrise and sunset can be observed, described and predicted (i.e. amount of daylight)

Grade 5

How do lengths and directions of shadows or relative lengths of day and night change from day to day?
How does the appearance of some stars change in different seasons?
  • Evidence that gravity pulls objects down (toward the center of the Earth)
  • Stars vary in distance from the earth and the intensity of their light is a function solely of that distance (at this grade level)
  • Earth, moon and sun's role in the patterns and causes of day, night and length and direction of shadows
  • Patterns of changing positions of sun, moon and stars in the sky over different time spans (within a day, month and year)

  Structure and Properties of Matter  

Grade 2

How are materials similar and different from one another, and how do the properties of the materials relate to their use?
  • Matter has different properties and states (dependent on temperature)
  • Different properties of matter are suited to different purposes*
  • Matter can be rearranged
  • Changes made to matter by heating or cooling cannot always be reversed

Grade 5

Can new substances be created by combining other substances?
When matter changes, does its weight change?
  • Matter can exist in particles too small to see and moves freely in space
  • Chemical changes/reactions
  • Conservation of mass/weight with chemical, state, etc. changes

  Waves  

Grade 1

What happens when materials vibrate?
What happens when there is no light?
  • Matter must vibrate to make sound
  • Light is needed to see
  • Light can pass some materials, be blocked by others or redirected by mirrors
  • Light and sound can be used for communication*

Grade 4

What are waves and what are some things they can do?
  • Waves in water – their patterns including amplitude and wavelength and effects on motion of objects
  • Waves (can be digitalized, etc.) sent over distances (can then be converted) for use (information and entertainment)*

  Energy  

Grade 4

What is energy and how is it related to motion?
How is energy transferred?
How can energy be used to solve a problem?
  • Define energy including stored energy
  • Energy transfer and its products
  • Connect energy and forces
  • Electrical currents how they are produced and used*
  • Energy's tie to renewable and nonrenewable sources including environmental impact

  Weather and Climate  

Kindergarten

What is the weather like today and how is it different from yesterday?
  • Weather is a combination of sunlight, precipitation and temperature at a particular time and place
  • Sunlight warms the Earth's surface and everything on it*
  • Types of severe weather are regional specific

Grade 3

What is typical weather in different parts of the world and during different times of the year?
How can the impact of weather-related hazards be reduced?
  • Weather patterns across time and regions (patterns of change can be used to make predictions)
  • Climate defined
  • Severe weather and how humans can prepare for it*

  Structure, Function and Information Processing  

Grade 1

What are some ways plants and animals meet their needs so that they can survive and grow?
How are parents and their children similar and different?
  • Plants and animals have parts that help them to survive and grow*
  • Some animals' parents take care of them
  • Animals and plants are very similar but not exactly the same as their parents

Grade 4

How do internal and external structures support the survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction of plants and animals?
  • Vision and reflected light from objects
  • Visible (macroscopic) external and internal structures and their functions in plants and animals as they relate to growth, survival, behavior and reproduction
  • Receiving, processing and responding the sensory information

  Inheritance and Variation of Traits  

Grade 3

How do organisms vary in their traits?
  • Life cycles: plant and animal including reproduction
  • Inheritance and environment impacts: cause the characteristics/traits and functions of each new generation including natural selection in species